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美簽制裁收效 不接受遣返移民國家銳減




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01/03/2019

美簽制裁收效 不接受遣返移民國家銳減

(World Journal) 編譯孫梁

國安部表示,美國用禁發簽證的方式要求其他國家接受該國非法移民的措施,取得極大成效。圖為一名非法移民去年11月16日在移民執法人員監護下,於休士頓機場登上遣返班機。(美聯社)

川普總統上任後實行一系列強硬移民政策,包括停止給延遲或拒不接受本國被遣返移民的國家發放簽證,這一政策已取得顯著成效 。( 取自推特)

川普總統上任後實行包括加強遣返在內的一系列強硬移民政策,他簽署的首批行政令之一,是停止給延遲或拒不接受本國被遣返移民的國家發放簽證;國土安全部認為,這一政策已取得顯著成效,延遲和不接受的國家從2015年的25個降至2018年12月的九個,截至去年5月,不情願接受的國家從62個降至24個。

非洲國家獅子山在歐巴馬政府最後兩年只接受21個被遣返移民,2017年8月受到川普政府的簽證制裁後,當年接受44人,2018會計年度接受79人。

長期延遲或拒不接受本國被遣返移民的古巴、中國和越南,儘管目前仍不情願接受,但已接納數百人。幾內亞從2016至2018年接納1200多人,被從黑名單中剔除。厄立特里亞接納的本國被遣返移民,從歐巴馬政府最後一年的13人增至2018年的62人,緬甸從三人增加到40人。這一時期只有伊索比亞從37人降至2018年的36人,但2017年接納了46人。

簽證制裁是國安部提出延緩和不接受本國被遣返移民的國家名單後,由國務院執行,警告他們美國將不給其政府官員及家人發放商務和旅遊簽證,而且更多制裁將接踵而來。

但美國政府的這一權力多年來只執行過兩次,分別是2001年的小布希政府和2016年底的歐巴馬政府,而川普時期已對六個國家實行簽證制裁。

移民研究中心的政策主任傑西卡·范恩說,這些國家的官員知道阻擋遣返將面臨後果,尤其是他們外交官的簽證,表明制裁發揮了作用。

但美國積壓了大批等候遣返的移民,其中以中國的4萬多人居首,其次是古巴的近3萬8000人。

由於最高法院2001年裁決,等候遣返移民的關押時間不能超過六個月,因此幾乎所有在押者最終都被釋放,其中包括許多罪犯,獲釋的罪犯中古巴人逾3萬、越南人近8000、老撾人近4000,中國公民超過2000人。




DHS Announces Implementation of Visa Sanctions

Release Date: 
July 10, 2018

On July 10, The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announced, in coordination with the State Department, the implementation of visa sanctions on Burma and Laos due to lack of cooperation in accepting their citizens who have been ordered removed the United States.

Pursuant to her authority under Section 243(d) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, Secretary of Homeland Security Kirstjen M. Nielsen notified Secretary of State Mike Pompeo that the governments of Burma and Laos have denied or unreasonably delayed accepting their nationals ordered removed from the United States.

As a result, Secretary Pompeo has ordered consular officers in Burma and Laos to implement visa restrictions on certain categories of visa applicants. Without an appropriate response from Burma and Laos, the scope of these sanctions may be expanded to a wider population. The suspension will remain in place until the Secretary Nielsen notifies Secretary Pompeo that cooperation on removals has improved to an acceptable level.

The decision to sanction a recalcitrant country is not taken lightly. DHS makes significant efforts, in collaboration with the State Department, to encourage countries to accept the prompt, lawful return of their nationals who are subject to removal from the United States. Those efforts include diplomatic communications at the highest level of government.

As a general matter, recalcitrant countries who refuse to issue travel documents render meaningless the United States’ entire removal process as enacted by Congress in the INA, and such countries also fail to meet their international treaty obligations to take back their nationals who have been ordered removed.

Further, based on the Supreme Court’s decision in Zadvydas v. Davis, with narrow exceptions, aliens with final orders of removal, including aliens determined to pose a threat to the community or considered a flight risk, may not be detained beyond a presumptively reasonable period of six months if there is no “significant likelihood of removal in the reasonably foreseeable future.” When recalcitrant countries like Burma and Laos delay or refuse to issue travel documents to their nationals or refuse to accept their nationals within this time period, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) may be required to release dangerous criminals into communities across the United States.

Ultimately, without a travel document issued by an alien’s home country to confirm identity and nationality, ICE cannot complete the removal process of most aliens, with very limited exceptions.

Burma and Laos have not established repeatable processes for issuing travel documents to their nationals ordered removed from the United States. For this reason, ICE has been required to release Burmese and Lao nationals into the United States, some with serious criminal convictions.

Specific sanctions effective dates are listed below:

BURMA: As of July 9, 2018, the U.S. Embassy in Rangoon, Burma has discontinued the issuance of all B1 and B2 nonimmigrant visas for current officials at the Director General level and above from the Burmese Ministries of Labor, Immigration, and Population (MOLIP) and Home Affairs (MOHA), and their immediate family members, with limited exceptions.

LAOS: As of July 9, 2018, the U.S. Embassy in Vientiane, Laos, has discontinued the issuance of all B1, B2, and B1/B2 nonimmigrant visas for current officials at the Director General level and above from the Lao Ministry of Public Security (MPS) as well as their immediate families; and all A3 and G5 nonimmigrant visas to individuals employed by Lao government officials, with limited exceptions.

The Department of State may change the covered visa applicants or visa categories at any time.  Visa suspensions may include any categories of visa or visa applicants, as determined by the Department. 

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