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一个发达国家沦落为发展中国家的速度有多快?




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8/25/2018

一个发达国家沦落为发展中国家的速度有多快?

By Perfectcat 

老川昨天在推文说指示国务卿蓬佩奥研究南非近期没收土地以及农民被杀害的情况,这是十几年来美国总统首次关注南非发生的状况,事件是由于在南非人口中占比不到9%的白人拥有该国72%的土地,南非总统拉马福萨今年2月就任后誓称,要将白人农场主自17世纪以来拥有的土地归还给该国的黑人,无偿征收土地的宪法修正决定在今年7月底正式通过。而且据当地媒体City Press周日报道称,首批未经法律程序批准就回收的是南非林波波省的两块游戏农场土地。土地所有者Akkerland Boerdery公司要求获得2亿南非兰特(约合1.37亿美元)的赔偿,但政府只同意给他们2000万南非兰特。而南非执政党主席Gwede Mantashe则宣称“你不能拥有超过12000公顷土地,超出的部分应该被无偿收回。根据当地农民工会的说法,南非的白人农场主正在以创纪录的速度,疯狂地想要卖出手中的土地,然而根本没有买家。

南非这次土地事件只是1994年结束种族隔离制度以来一直占人口绝对多数的南非黑人对白人逆向种族歧视政策的一个缩影。早期的南非是基督教新教加尔文宗的荷兰布尔人在十七世纪随着荷兰东印度公司建立的一个殖民地,后来与英国多次争战融合后形成了白人统治当地土族图班人并于1961年脱离英联邦的独立主权国家,由于布尔人特有的基督教信仰和自治传统,为了保护其特有的文化传统,在国家制度实施了白人与黑人各自自治的所谓种族隔离政策,其目的是各自过各自的,而且南非在种族隔离制度时期也鼓励四个黑人自治区独立成立国家,但是遭到了那时对南非一致制裁的国际社会反对,实际上在种族隔离时期,南非成为媲美欧美的发达国家,是当时世界上十一个粮食自给有余并有余粮出口的国家之一。其黄金开采量占世界的四分之三,能够制造从电冰箱到汽车的各种产品,每年出口大量的粮食、葡萄酒、纺织品和机器。而黑人在种族隔离制度下生活状况却是撒哈拉以南非洲最好的,受教育程度最高,能得到最好的医疗保健。即使受到国际社会严厉制裁,驱逐出联合国,以及武器禁运,驱逐出国际体育组织,航空不能飞越非洲大部分国家,南非依旧能够自给自足,七十年代年均GDP以5%速度增长。

但1994年结束种族隔离制度并曼德拉上台执政后推行了一些列左派政策,国有化,提高“受苦受难”的黑人福利,并开始清算打压白人,进行逆向种族歧视,出台了向黑人倾斜的《公平就业法》和《黑人经济振兴法案》,要求黑人和"历史上曾受不公平对待"的族群获得南非境内各银行和公司至少25.1%的股份,结果导致大量白人遭到解雇,财产被剥夺,白人贫穷率大幅上升,大批白人精英被迫移民欧美等国,而许多没能力移民的白人被迫居住到贫民窟里靠救济为生。白人占南非人口从94年的14%降到了去年的9%,但是一些列看似平等和解的政策并没有使南非经济腾飞人民安居乐业,南非成为犯罪率奇高,艾滋病高发,贪污腐化严重,经济陷入停滞,失业率高涨,债务负担严重的国家,而白人在南非的生存则越来越岌岌可危,但南非黑人总统马福萨在经济连年不景气时居然干起了打土豪分田地,掠夺白人世代拥有的土地帮助国家度过难关,这不能不引起老川的密切关注和愤怒。

对于南非白人近两年的被歧视处境,澳大利亚去年伸出援手打算接纳南非白人难民,但被南非政府谴责成种族主义,这次老川正义关注南非白人问题,却也被南非政府说成是企图分裂国家的狭隘想法。南非从一个发达国家倒退成一个问题严重的发展中国家,正如同哈耶克在《通往奴役之路》中的名句,试图将国家带入天堂的,往往最后将国家带入了地狱。 





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For other history videos on South Africa view the 
South African History Online Documentaries Playlist https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...











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