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800移民集体硬闯“飞地” 对岸西班牙本土慌得不行




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7/27/2018

800移民集体硬闯“飞地” 对岸西班牙本土慌得不行

昨天早上天刚亮, 800位非洲移民徒手翻过两座6米高的边境墙,试图从摩洛哥进入西班牙位于北非的“飞地”休达(Ceuta),并用自制的“导弹”与西班牙国民卫队产生冲突,造成两败俱伤的局面。


图自国家报
 
最终,有大部分移民成功入境。近段时间来“大举接盘难民”的马德里很焦虑,这波“不请自来”的移民无疑造成不小压力。一些港口城市政府直接叫板欧盟:“今天我们遭罪,明天就轮到欧洲腹地!”


图自卫报

战术翻墙,措手不及

据西班牙《国家报》消息,事件发生在当地时间26日早上6点35分。在两座全长8.4的公里的边境墙前,这群移民找到了一处“没有任何监控”的突破口,当地政府因此被打个措手不及。待国民警卫队抵达现场,已经是1个小时以后。


部分移民抵达休达市的街道上 图自国家报

摩洛哥执法部门随后也抵达现场,和西班牙国民警卫队一前一后开始对局面进行控制。过程移民和执法人员发生争执:一边有部分移民利用钳子、锤头破坏边境墙;另一边有人手持盾牌,向执法人员泼洒石灰、燃烧瓶,以及自制“导弹”等武器。


西班牙国民警卫队展示移民使用的“自制导弹”和燃烧瓶 图自国民警卫队推特

一位国民警卫队负责人还透露:“有移民朝我们抛掷排泄物。”

他总结道,共有约800位“未经注册”的移民参与到这次“翻墙事故”中,他们均来自撒哈拉以南地区,最终有602人成功入境。其中有16人已被送往医院,其余586人被送往临时移民中心(CETI),等待下一步的安置。


警方控制现场,移民等待安置 图自国家报

休达当地的红十字组织也是“倾巢而出”,为此次事故出动50名志愿者、调用了“所有的救护车”。该机构在当天下午发推,称事故共造成132人受伤,其中还包括22名国民警卫成员。


部分受伤的移民 图自国家报

移民潮,阀门在摩洛哥手里

休达位于直布罗陀海峡南侧,是一座港口城市。17世纪葡萄人将此地割让给西班牙,后者保留至今。在北部非洲,西班牙还有一座自治市,即休达以东、同为港口城市的梅利利亚(Melilla)。


这两座城市是欧盟成员国与非洲仅有的陆地边界,“顺理成章”成为多年来非洲移民冲击欧洲大陆的“跳板”。2005年9月西非闹饥荒时,休达和梅利利亚曾在单月遭到过4波“百人规模”的冲击。当时,有至少11名移民在和当地执法部门的冲突中丧命。


2014年梅利利亚还发生过移民硬闯入境事件,单日人数达惊人的2000人 图自世界报

针对由陆路北上的非洲移民,西班牙当局的管控少不了摩洛哥的支持。《国家报》称,由于大规模移民越境事件在过去12月内鲜有发生,不少西班牙警力对此归功于摩洛哥在边境上的“完美控制”。

但毕竟在这股自南向北的移民潮中,摩洛哥是挡在西班牙前的第一道阀,前者和后者的合作也是建立在一定基础上的。介于摩洛哥经济对欧盟的依赖性,该国多次敦促欧盟遵守贸易协定。去年2月,摩洛哥农业、乡村发展和渔业大臣阿赫努什(Aziz Akhannouch)还威胁道,“如果出现任何不利于贸易协定的情况,将很可能引发新一轮非法移民进入欧洲”。

不过这两年陆路不再备受移民推崇:去年1至8月间,有大约9300名难民和非法移民从海上登陆西班牙,选择走“飞地”的只有3500人;今年已有超过2.72万难民和非法移民抵达西班牙,其中2万人走海陆。

“今天是西班牙的问题,明天就是欧盟的问题”

对于本次成功突围的602位难民来说,何时能够真正登陆欧洲大陆,还是未知数。目前西班牙政府将他们放在临时移民中心,埃菲社曾报道指出,这里的“移民-公民”转换率极低,而且该机构早已人满为患:设计容纳500人地方,现在收容了1200人。


正在排队进入中心的移民 图自国家报

以往走海陆的移民,在被西班牙当局拦截后,并非送往伊比利亚半岛,而是休达的临时移民中心。此地由于条件艰苦,移民会受到警方监管,也被一些西班牙国内的公益组织成为“移民监狱”。


临时移民中心外部 图自先锋报

这从另一方面也可看出西班牙在应对大量移民潮时的无力。

今年已有19586名移民入境西班牙,这个数字超过了意大利的17981人和希腊的15351人。新上任的西班牙右翼新总统佩德罗•桑切斯(Pedro Sanchez)上月选择接手“阿奎里厄斯”号上的500多名难民,已经有点让地方政府忙不过来。


西班牙今年接受移民、难民人数已经超过意大利和希腊 图自国际移民组织

目前这些人还只能睡在西班牙搜救船上,仍未被安置。


仍然睡在船上 图自卫报

对于这次602位“不请自来”的名移民,直布罗陀海峡对面的阿尔赫西拉斯市很焦虑。市长兰达鲁斯(José Ignacio Landaluce)呼吁西班牙政府和欧盟加大对此地的干预,“不然这里将变成下一个兰佩杜萨岛。”


意大利最南端的兰佩杜萨岛同样是很多非洲移民北上的必经之路。2013年一艘利比亚偷渡船在附近海域沉没,300人多葬身海地。此外,移民还给兰佩杜萨岛带来犯罪率等问题

“我希望欧盟管管这事,”兰达鲁斯说道:“这也许现在是我们的问题,但明天、一个星期后、或许一个月后,问题就会达到欧洲的心脏地带。”






7/27/2018

Spain Becomes Main Entry Point to Europe for Migrants Crossing by Sea

Growing numbers are a test for Spain’s prime minister, who has been more welcoming than other European leaders

Spanish authorities give blankets to migrants found aboard dinghies in the Strait of Gibraltar.
Spanish authorities give blankets to migrants found aboard dinghies in the Strait of Gibraltar. PHOTO: REUTERS

By 
Jeannette Neumann

MADRID—Spain’s mainland has for the first time surpassed Italy and Greece to become the main entry point for migrants arriving in Europe from Africa by sea.

Overall, the number of arrivals in Europe has fallen sharply in the last year. But the growing number of migrants flowing through Spain in particular shows that Africa’s borders remains porous.

The heightened migration is a test for Spain’s new center-left Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez, who has taken a more welcoming stance as other European leaders crack down in response to public concern over the arrival of hundreds of thousands of migrants to Europe’s shores during the past several years.

Mr. Sánchez stepped in last month and allowed migrants aboard a rescue ship to dock in Spain after Italy‘s new anti-immigrant government refused them entry.

There has been a 50% decrease in the number of seaborne migrants who have arrived in Europe so far this year compared to the same period in 2017, but the number coming via Spain has jumped.

Of the 55,000 seaborne migrants who have come this year, an estimated 21,000 have entered through Spain. There has been a surge since June, when the route from Morocco’s coasts to the Spanish mainland leapfrogged the Libya-Italy passage, previously the most-traveled route.

Since May 31, more than 230 seaborne migrants have arrived each day to Spain versus an average of 54 per day in the first five months of 2018, according to figures from the International Organization for Migration.

The increase is driven in part by the growing difficulty seaborne migrants face along the route from Libya to Italy. Libya, with the encouragement of Italy’s government, has cracked down on movement through its territory.

Migrants say they have experienced horrible conditions, including rape and witnessing murder.

Traffickers appear to have responded to efforts by Libyan, Italian and international agencies to curb migration by shifting their routes further west along the Mediterranean toward Spain, where there aren’t the same widespread efforts in place to prevent migrants leaving or repatriate them quickly.

“Spain is the weakest point,” Virginia Álvarez, research head for Amnesty International in Madrid, said.

Eritreans, Nigerians, Sudanese and other nationalities that dominated the Libya-Italy route haven’t shown up in equal numbers on the Morocco-Spain route, although that could change over time, migration agency officials say.

Instead, the shifting of migration routes to the west appears to have encouraged and accelerated the migration of Moroccans and West Africans.

“When smugglers see there is demand, they create an infrastructure,” said Ewa Moncure, a spokeswoman for Frontex, the European Union’s border agency. “The existence of the infrastructure is a pull factor in itself” for migrants, she adds.

For West Africans, Morocco is a comparatively easier jumping-off point than Libya. Some would-be African migrants fly into Casablanca, for instance, and then pay smugglers to take dinghies across to Spain. At its closest point, the Moroccan coast is only around nine miles from the Spanish coast through the narrow Strait of Gibraltar.

Instability in countries like Mali, suffering a jihadist insurgency, has spurred migration and shows few signs of abating. Violence has flared up ahead of presidential elections on Sunday. Clashes have broken out in Timbuktu and militant groups with links to Al Qaeda and Islamic State have intensified deadly raids across the desert regions, swathes of which have become ungovernable.

Migrants are also arriving in Spain by land. On Thursday, around 600 migrants jumped border fences separating the Spanish enclave of Ceuta from Morocco.

Moroccans, who have long migrated to nearby Spain especially during times of strong economic growth, are also seizing on the growing number of smugglers’ routes from their home country to migrate by sea, officials at non-profit organizations and migration agencies say.

The number of Moroccans migrating to Spain via sea has more than tripled to an estimated 1,500 in the first five months of this year compared to the same period in 2017, the most recent Frontex data show. Spain is in its fifth year of economic expansion.

If migrants arrive successfully, they report back to friends and family. “And the cycle,” Ms. Moncure says, “begins.”









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