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移民新政:75萬小偷渡客居留不樂觀

沈珠妮 2017年07月14日 10:24


國土安全部部長凱利說,國安部不會為「童年抵美暫緩遣返,DACA」護航。(Getty Images)  國土安全部部長凱利說,國安部不會為「童年抵美暫緩遣返,DACA」護航。(Getty Images)
一名在德州美墨邊境的小偷渡客,被大人帶進美國的檔案照。(Getty Images)  一名在德州美墨邊境的小偷渡客,被大人帶進美國的檔案照。(Getty Images)

1、這是指童年非法入境美國的,所謂「夢想生(dreamers)」的命運?

國土安全部部長凱利(John Kelly)日前在國會山莊對國會西語裔黨團(Congressional Hispanic Caucus)說,國安部在法庭上可能拒絕捍衛這項前總統歐巴馬簽署的行政命令。如果國安部拒絕承認「夢想生」在美國的合法居留權利,約75萬名「夢想生」的居留命運將受影響。世界日報芝加哥特派員黃惠玲已經報導了伊州國會眾議員古提艾雷斯(Luis Gutierrez)「大遣返」的警告。新州國會參議員曼內德茲(Bob Menendez)本人是古巴移民,他在會後對華盛頓郵報說:「情況不妙(It's not a pretty picture)。」

2、這是什麼行政命令?

歐巴馬在2012年簽署「童年抵美暫緩遣返(Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals,DACA)」行政命令,准許在2007年6月時非法進入美國的兒童(未滿16歲者),而且在2012年時年紀在30歲以下的非法移民,可以獲得暫緩遣返的特權,他們並可以得到兩年一期的工作許可(期滿後可繼續申請)。在歐巴馬這項行政命令之下,在2013年與2014年出現大批偷渡人潮,湧入德州、亞歷桑納與新墨西哥州。丕優研究中心(Pew Research Center)說,有75萬人可以因此獲得美國居留權,並另有已經大約100萬名在美國的非法移民也可以因此獲得居留權。「美國移民改革聯盟(Federation for American Immigration Reform )」的梅爾曼(Ira Mehlman)對保守派新聞網「LifeZette」說,「這基本是說,你如果有小孩在這裡,就可以留下。」

3、國安部不願擔保小偷渡客留美的背景?

是德州等9個州受不了這些非法移民造成的經濟負擔,由德州州檢察官派克斯頓(Ken Paxton)與其他州檢察官在6月底聯名致信川普政府,威脅如果在9月5日之前不廢除「DACA」行政命令,他們將控告聯邦政府。

4、國安部部長凱利的說法?

他說,他個人是支持「DACA」的,但是,如果聯邦受到控訴挑戰這項行政命令的合法性,他無法保證川普政府會在法庭上為這項行政命令辯護。凱利早先已經說明,另一項在2014年的歐巴馬移民行政令「DAPA(暫緩遣返父母,Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents)」,沒有法律上的立場 。

5、川普政府為何不願替「DACA」辯護?

三個原因。第一,偷渡來美,本身犯法,美國政府如果替違法的人辯護,國安部將如何繼續執法?第二,歐巴馬的行政命令越權,「移民研究中心(Center for Immigration Studies)」的基里柯里安(Mark Kirikorian)指出,由總統逕行制訂的「DACA移民法」基本是不合法的。制訂移民法在程序上屬國會的職權範圍,歐巴馬以行政命令繞過國會的立法程序,頒發了兩項影響重大的移民政策,由於這兩項政策不是法案,現任總統川普在法庭上很難替歐巴馬的行政命令辯護。第三,移民研究中心估計,今年前三個月以來,有1萬3436名非法外國人(illegal aliens)獲得工卡(work permit)、社安卡、駕照、退稅福利(tax credits)。平均一天192名非法外國人得到這些社會福利。批評者說,這項行政命令等於是變相的大赦,對規規矩矩等候移民的人不公平,此外,「夢想生」增加美國社會負擔,美國法律規定,公立中小學校必須接收學生,而不問他們的居留身分,這是DACA「夢想生」一進入美國就可以得到的社會福利,地方居民交繳可觀的房產稅,其中一大部分是負擔地方學校的教育經費,「夢想生」的處境值得同情,但是,他們造成的地方負擔也是不爭的事實.

原文链接>>





Kelly won't commit to defending DACA in court

By 

07/12/2017 04:42 PM EDT


An Obama-era deportation relief program may soon face a legal challenge — and the Trump administration won’t commit to defending it, Homeland Security Secretary John Kelly told Hispanic lawmakers at a closed-door meeting Wednesday on Capitol Hill.

Twenty Democratic members of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus pressed Kelly for assurances that he would help preserve the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, which grants deportation relief and access to work permits to undocumented immigrants brought to the U.S. at a young age.

Kelly told the lawmakers that although he personally supports DACA, he can't guarantee that the administration would defend it in court. He also said that he’d consulted attorneys who told him the program wouldn’t survive a legal challenge.

“It’s not a pretty picture," Sen. Bob Menendez (D-N.J.), who attended the meeting, told reporters. “The legal authorities that he’s spoken to suggest that DACA cannot be sustained legally. We have a different view.”

The secretary declined to take questions after the meeting, but a department spokesperson confirmed accounts from lawmakers.

DACA's future has been uncertain since President Donald Trump, who pledged during the campaign to eliminate the program, took office. After his inauguration Trump said participants in the program, known as DREAMers, "shouldn't be very worried" and that "we're looking at it with great heart." In mid-June, DHS said on its website that DREAMers currently participating in the program would not have their work permits canceled prior to their scheduled expiration.

But a DHS spokesman followed up that web posting by stating, "The future of the DACA program continues to be under review." Then, in late June, Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton and his counterparts from nine other Republican-led statessent a letter to Attorney General Jeff Sessions that demanded the Trump administration rescind the program. If not, the coalition threatened, it would amend an ongoing lawsuit against another deportation relief program to target DACA as well. Such a move would compel the Trump administration to clarify a position on DACA that it's preferred to keep vague.

David Lapan, a department spokesperson, said Kelly spoke with several lawyers inside and outside the department to assess the odds that the program could survive a court challenge. “Most of them felt that DACA, as it exists, is not legally sustainable,” Lapan said.

Kelly's comments, and Lapan's, suggest the Trump administration likely won't defend DACA if it's challenged in court. At the meeting, Kelly urged Congress to find a legislative solution. Bipartisan bills in the House and Senate, dubbed the Bridge Act, would provide legal status for DACA recipients. But Kelly hasn’t given it his endorsement.

“He said the same dumb line, ‘Well, Congress should do something about it,’" Rep. Ruben Gallego (D-Ariz.) said. "Well, obviously we want to do something about it."

Rep. Nanette Diaz Barragán (D-Calif.) said the members asked Kelly whether he would publicly back a legal pathway for people covered by the program. “I told him we would invite him to a press conference in support of DACA legislation, and he said that he would consider it,” she said after the meeting.

Kelly recently trekked to Capitol Hill to back several Republican immigration enforcement bills in the House, but he has not advocated passage of a DACA bill.

“I mentioned the Bridge Act specifically, and it almost sounded like he didn’t even know what that was,” said Barragán.

The secretary also addressed the fate of countries that currently qualify for temporary protected status, a humanitarian program that allows people whose homelands have been struck by a natural disaster or conflict to live and work in the U.S.

The TPS status of Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador will expire early next year, but Kelly would not vow to renew them.

Source: http://www.politico.com/story/2017/07/12/john-kelly-daca-legal-challenge-240470




國會議員警告:緩遣令恐停 大遣返將啟動

特派員黃惠玲/芝加哥報導 2017年07月13日 10:40

民主黨籍的伊州國會眾議員古提艾雷斯(圖中講台前發言者)警告,大遣返恐將開始。(本報檔案照片)  民主黨籍的伊州國會眾議員古提艾雷斯(圖中講台前發言者)警告,大遣返恐將開始。(本報檔案照片)

國土安全部部長凱利(John Kelly)12日與國會西語裔眾議員小組(Congressional Hispanic Caucus)會面時表示,保護年輕無證移民避免遣返的作法「可能違法」(likely illegal)。在場的伊州國會眾議員古提艾雷斯(Luis Gutierrez) 認為,這是取消「年輕無證移民 暫緩遣返」(DACA) 的前兆,他警告移民要做好對付「大規模遣返」的準備。

古提艾雷斯12日晚間發表聲明,凱利在與小組成員會面一個多小時期間明白指出,他個人雖支持保護年輕無證移民,但卻也不認為這種方式合乎現行移民法,凱利說,「DACA的未來,將視司法部長塞辛斯的決定。」

凱利說,他無法幫助那些沒有犯罪紀錄即被驅逐出境者,及這些人的美國公民孩子。他也不認為自己在現行法律下,有權免除這些人被遣返。

古提艾雷斯解讀,凱利的說法,等於將DACA宣判死刑,「我很擔心目前持DACA身分的移民。」假使DACA廢除,等於將百萬持合法身分者將瞬間成為無證,接著就將被列入遣返名單。

他認為,這顯示了塞辛斯與凱利都非常嚴肅的在準備開始「大遣返」,移民應該為最壞的結果做好準備,對付可能很快展開的大規模遣返。對於這項問題,凱利回應表示,他不清楚他的機構的工作方式,也不明白國會運作的方式。

根據資料顯示,向移民局登記的DACA約有78萬7000人,華人比率不高,而川普總統曾經說過,他不會遣返DACA,伊州國會參議員德賓(Dick Durbin)還在今年5月底一場移民心理健康會議中,公開讚揚川普至今沒有推翻童年來美緩遣遞解計畫(DACA),他說「第一次與川普見面時,他表示會照顧這些DACA年輕人」,而川普果然信守承諾。 。

此外,凱利也在12日的會面中,明白指出繼續實施「臨時保護地位」(TPS)的移民福利的可能性很低,他說,多年前因家鄉有災難而獲准在美國居留和工作的移民,應該考慮返回祖國,TPS的受惠者,以宏都拉斯、薩爾瓦多為主。

另一方面,與DACA配套的「美國父母暫緩遣返案(Deferred Action for Parents of Americans,DAPA)」,已由國土安全部在今年6月15日時取消,這項法案在2014年11月由歐巴馬以政策備忘錄(policy memo)頒布,並無經過國會立法的程序,因此可以由川普政府的國安部以行政命令直接取消,而無須經過國會立法程序同意。

原文链接>>


Published on Jul 12, 2017

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