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美大学著名华裔遗传学专家辞职 涉千人计划


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7/08/2019


美大学著名华裔遗传学专家辞职 涉千人计划

  一份Inewsource新闻机构调查性报导显示,加州大学圣地亚哥分校一名著名眼科遗传学华裔博士参与了被美国联邦调查局(FBI)调查的中“千人计划”,在Inewsource询问他和外国政府之间的关系后,这名博士从大学辞职。

  中“千人计划”旨在确定西方大学和公司的全球专家,并招募他们到中国科技领域工作。美国政府机构,包括FBI、美国国立卫生研究院,将中“千人计划”视为把美国技术、知识产权和技术转移到中国的关键工具。

 “张康没有披露这些信息令人不安”

  Inewsource是一家非营利性、无党派新闻机构。在该网站7月6日发表的一片长篇报导中,该机构了解到,加州大学圣地亚哥分校Shiley Eye Institute(希利眼科学院)前眼科遗传学负责人张康(Kang Zhang)是中“千人计划”(Thousand Talents program)的成员。

  Inewsource报导还发现,张康是一家公开上市的中国生物技术公司创始人和主要股东,该公司专门从事他在加州大学圣地亚哥分校开展的同样类型研究工作。在大学政策和联邦法规要求填写的表格上,他没有向美国政府或加州大学圣地亚哥分校透露这个信息,以及他在中国的其它制药企业的信息。

  Inewsource的报导并没有发现张康非法将知识产权转移到国外的任何指控。

  上周四,在Inewsource向张康的律师和加州大学圣地亚哥分校提出有关张康与千人计划和未公开中国企业的关系问题后,张从大学辞职。

  张的律师李奥‧坎宁安(Leo Cunningham)上周二在一封电子邮件中告诉Inewsource,他的客户“从未被要求隐瞒他参与千人计划;他从未隐瞒过他的参与;他的参与没有任何不妥之处;他没有理由隐瞒他的参与。”

  Inewsource称,尽管坎宁安表示,多数(如果不是所有的话)张的公司已经“长期为大学所知”,但他并没有提供任何证据。他周五在一封电子邮件中说,张的辞职原因“是(张)博士和大学之间(的事)。”

  美国医学院协会(Association of American Medical Colleges,AAMC)首席科学官罗斯‧麦金尼(Ross McKinney)博士表示,张康没有披露这些信息令人不安。

  麦金尼说:“不披露就是在撒谎,这是纯粹和简单的,而且是不合情理的。”

 NIH对研究人员未披露利益冲突表示担忧

  美国国立卫生研究院(NIH)是世界上最大的生物医学研究公共资助者,每年投资约390亿美元。截至6月,NIH的研究诚信外国影响工作组已经向60多所大学和受赠机构发出通报,对研究人员未披露的利益冲突和从属关系表示担忧。这些信件可能导致资金退款、终止、暂停,以及FBI介入调查。

  NIH副主任迈克尔‧劳尔(Michael Lauer)6月告诉Inewsource说:“这些信件是在我们担心可能存在不合规问题的情况下发出的,不合规意味着没有向我们正确披露重要信息。”

  Inewsource文章说,张康在他的职业生涯中获得了超过1500万美元的NIH补助金,在加州大学圣地亚哥分校11年期间,获得了1000万美元的资助,用于研究眼病和遗传学。

  目前华盛顿及美国各地日益担忧中共和其它外国政府利用NIH资助的研究计划安插留学生和访问学者窃取知识产权,并诱惑科学家在他们的国家设立“影子实验室”。

  NIH副主任劳尔帮助监督在研究资金方面的科学诚信以及授予合规性和公共责任。他表示,该机构已经看到重大的利益冲突,那些因项目而获得NIH资助的研究人员,也在开发相同技术的外国公司中拥有经济利益。

  NIH院长弗朗西斯‧柯林斯(Francis Collins)今年4月出席美国参议院拨款委员会听证会,他会后告诉媒体记者,接下来的一到两个星期内,部分美国大学将宣布他们已采取行动,防止外国政府不公平地利用NIH资助的研究项目。

  柯林斯进一步表示,NIH正在调查美国55家机构中接受NIH资金的外国研究人员,并发现有些科学家从事违反规定的行为,包括双重收费、没有披露其所从事的研究工作,同时也获得外国资助、将属于其美国单位的知识产权转移给他人、向其它国家政府申请资助,以及容许知识产权被盗用等。

  中海外人才招聘的“千人计划”转入地下,这让在美的中国科学家陷入相当尴尬的境地,因为更难说“清楚”千人计划就是人才招聘那么简单。

 张康是第三批“千人计划”入选者

  “千人计划”从2008年启动,到目前已吸引7000多名学者或技术人才回到中国。根据中官方之前发布的2018年“千人计划”、“万人计划”申报推荐工作信息,申请工作仍在继续进行。

  大多数“千人计划”的上榜人士都来自美国,还有一些人士维持着中美机构之间的双重联系。该计划要求全职回国者每年在大陆工作不少于6个月,短期回国者要求连续3年在大陆工作每年不少于2个月。

  Inewsource文章说,麦金尼在谈论“千人计划”(并非谈论张康)时指出,每年六个月是千人计划雇用参与者相当典型的工作长度。该计划还告诉参与者不要告诉他们所在的机构(指在美国就职机构)。”

  他对Inewsource补充说:“有非常具体的证据表明,基本上,参与者被指示撒谎──并且确实在撒谎。”

  美国国家情报委员会(National Intelligence Council)认为,中企图利用“千人计划”将美国技术、知识产权和技术诀窍转移到中国去。

  NIH的咨询委员会去年12月13日在其发布的一份聚焦“千人计划”的报告中说,一小部分在美国的外国研究人员一边领着美国政府资金,一边将美国的知识产权转移到他们各自的国家,使得全美各地的学术机构成为受害者。

  据大陆百度百科资料,张康教授,医学博士,遗传学博士,(中)国家第三批“千人计划”入选者。2010年7月30日,受聘为四川大学客座教授。他的研究领域包括寻找新的黄斑变性、糖尿病视网膜病变和遗传性视网膜疾病致病基因和治疗方法。

  Inewsource文章说,张康在2010年入选第三批“千人计划”,是他在加州大学圣地亚哥分校工作2年后,他是圣地亚哥分校基因组医学研究所的创始主任。张康获聘后,涉及他的中文新闻发布和采访经常谈到他是“千人计划”的一员。

  Inewsource文章说,科学家拥有企业或参与“千人计划”并非违法或不常见。根据最近一项研究,近1000名政府和私营企业的员工参与该计划。张康的律师表示,张拒绝全职参加该计划的提议,也没有接受中国政府的付款。

 多名在美科学家未透露参与“千人计划”受到处罚

  自去年以来,德克萨斯州MD安德森癌症中心、亚特兰大埃默里大学、新墨西哥州洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室和国家海洋与大气管理局的一些科学家因涉及“千人计划”,且未透露或撒谎,已经辞职、被解雇甚至被捕,这是美国政府调查外国科学影响力的一部分。

  “还有其它领域,但我无法与你分享,”劳尔对Inewsource说。他并补充说,美国国立卫生研究院已将犯罪问题提交给联邦调查局和其它联邦机构。他说,重要的一点是(美国)当局关注的是行为,而不是种族。

  安德森癌症中心4月19日宣布,正在开除三名被指和中国分享重要研究成果和数据的科学家。安德森中心对五名教授进行了调查,开除了其中三人。这五人均是亚裔,其中至少三人是华裔。

  《休斯敦纪事报》报导,安德森癌症中心的调查提到,五名教授中有三位可能参与了千人计划,而且没有人透露过这种关系。

  5月23日),位于美国乔治亚州,有“南部哈佛”美誉的埃默里大学发布一份声明称,该校去年接获NIH发给许多学术研究机构及大学,要求展开内部调查的信,随后在调查中发现两名接受NIH赞助的关键研究人员,没有充分披露他们接受外国研究资金的来源,以及在中国研究机构和大学的工作范围。埃默里决定予以解雇,并且与NIH分享了这些信息。

  该校并未在声明中透露这两名研究人员的姓名,据报导,被解雇的两名研究员是华裔生物教授李晓江,以及同于该校任教的妻子李世华,大校网站有关两人的介绍资料网页已被删除。

  美国新墨西哥州一重要国家实验室的科学家特拉伯‧鲁克曼(Turab Lookman),被控在与中的“千人计划”接触一事上说谎,5月28日出庭受审。

  为保护美国知识产权,美国能源部已下令禁止该部门的科学家及承包商,参与中共千人计划和其它国家政府赞助的人才招聘计划。




UCSD doctor resigns amid questions about undisclosed Chinese businesses




6/16/2019

Emory fires two NIH-funded faculty members for not disclosing foreign sources of funding and work in China

By Claire Dietz

Emory University has terminated two NIH-funded faculty members at the Department of Genetics for failing to disclose foreign sources of funding and the extent of their involvement with institutions in People’s Republic of China.

“Since this is a personnel matter, we cannot share specific details; however, through the course of an investigation prompted by an NIH inquiry, Emory determined that these faculty members had failed to fully disclose foreign sources of research funding and the extent of their work for research institutions and universities in China,” Vikas P. Sukhatme, dean of Emory University School of Medicine, said in a memo to the faculty and staff. “Please note we are working to minimize disruption within the department and taking steps to ensure research projects continue.”

According to Science, the two researchers are disputing their termination. The journal reported “neuroscientist Li Xiao-Jiang says the university dismissed him and neuroscientist Li Shihua, his wife and lab co-leader, ‘simultaneously without any notice or opportunity for us to respond to unverified accusations.’”

In April, three faculty members at MD Anderson Cancer Center were sanctioned for failure to ensure confidentiality of review of NIH grants (The Cancer Letter,April 26). These scientists had also failed to disclose outside funding, academic appointments, and roles in laboratories outside the U.S.


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The MD Anderson cases included:

  • Unauthorized sharing of confidential material and failure to disclose affiliations in People’s Republic of China;

  • Failure to disclose personal relationships with PIs and academic appointments in People’s Republic of China;

  • Emailing an NIH grant application to a scientist based in the People’s Republic of China.

The Senate Committee on Finance June 5 held a hearing focused on foreign threats to taxpayer-funded research. The hearing examined the actions several departments of the federal government—including HHS and NIH—have taken in response to the recent uptick in reports of researchers failing to disclose funding and academic appointments outside the U.S. (The Cancer Letter, April 26).

A webcast of the committee hearing can be found here.

“Truly free collaboration and exchange of information is only possible when data and sources are credible, and the research process can be trusted,” Chairman Chuck Grassley (R-IA) said in a statement. “That trust is destroyed when foreign governments and other entities interfere in our research for their gain and to our detriment.”

In his testimony, Joe W. Gray, the Gordon Moore Chair of Biomedical Engineering and associate director for Biophysical Oncology in the Knight Cancer Institute at Oregon Health & Science University, cautioned against “stifling innovation whenever we constrain interactions.





“It has been my experience that the way people approach problems is colored strongly by their past experiences and by the nature of their education,” Gray said in submitted testimony. “It is also my experience that individuals educated in other countries bring different ways of thinking and different facts.

“Further, these individuals undergo extensive vetting to ensure a high level of education and potential. Thus, I believe that innovative solutions to the complex problems we are trying to solve throughout the biomedical community today will occur most rapidly through the free and open exchange of information and ideas, including with a broad range of foreign nationals.”

The controls on data sharing that are now in place do protect against most forms of data misuse may also have a negative impact on innovation, Gray said.

“The economic strength of the U.S. depends on innovation and on the speedy implementation and commercialization of innovative ideas,” Gray said. “I believe that the controls that are already in place provide a workable balance between protecting data and intellectual property and allowing the free exchange of data and information needed for effective innovation.”

Grassley singled out China as a particular threat. Some of the threats to research include, “spying, theft of intellectual property, [and] disclosure of confidential information,” he said.

“We are aware that a few foreign governments have initiated systematic programs to capitalize on the collaborative nature of biomedical research and unduly influence U.S.-based researchers,” Lawrence A. Tabak, NIH principal deputy director, said in submitted testimony. “It is essential for us to continue vigilance and take additional actions to protect the integrity of the U.S. biomedical research enterprise, while also protecting important relationships with foreign scientists worldwide.”



Tabak said NIH has taken the following measures have been taken to identify and monitor these problems:

  • Partnering with colleagues at the Department of Health and Human Services and the FBI to exchange information on emerging threats;

  • Developing a new dashboard to assist NIH in responding to data requests needed for its reviews in this context;

  • Maintaining an open channel of communication with funded research institutions and investigators;

  • Training NIH staff to identify and report suspicious activity on the part of key scientists designated in grant applications as well as peer reviewers.

According to Tabak, actions awardee institutions have taken to mitigate concerns include:

  • Terminating or suspending scientists;

  • Intervening to address previously unreported affiliations with foreign institutions;

  • Relinquishing or refunding of NIH funds;

  • Prohibiting certain individuals from serving as investigators on NIH grants;

  • Raising awareness among institutional faculty about government and institutional policies dealing with foreign affiliations and relationships.

“We have evaluations underway to assess NIH’s vetting and oversight of its peer reviewers, including its efforts to prevent or identify inappropriate disclosure of information by peer reviewers, and an evaluation of how NIH monitors the financial conflicts of interest, including foreign financial interests, reported by grantee institutions,” Leslie W. Hollie, chief of investigative operations in the HHS Office of Inspector General, said in submitted testimony.

The largest number of ongoing cases regarding transmission of technical data involve China, Russia, and Iran, Louis A. Rodi, acting assistant director of the National Security Investigations Division of Homeland Security Investigations, said in submitted testimony.

“Exploitation of academia and U.S. research institutions is just one of the schemes these countries are employing to obtain access to sensitive research and export-controlled information and technology, and to facilitate its transfer abroad,” Rodi said. “These countries are attempting to obtain this information, in many instances in an illegal or subversive manner, in order to advance their own military capabilities or economic goals, many times in contravention to the national security of the U.S.”







5/26/2019

「憂外國勢力介入」 愛默蕾大學開除華裔學者 限期遣返

(World Journal) 記者林昱瑄

遭愛默蕾大學解雇的華裔遺傳學者出面反駁校方說法,圖為愛默蕾校園。(愛默蕾大學)

任教於愛默蕾大學(Emory University)的華裔遺傳學者李曉江與李世華,在該校收到國家衛生研究院(NIH)表達對外國勢力介入研究的疑慮後,22日遭到解雇,實驗室遭關閉,實驗室內多位中國學者並被要求30天內強制遣返。

李曉江24日向「科學」(Science)雜誌證實,他5月16日在中國旅行時,被告知他和太太李世華已被解雇。愛默蕾大學還關閉了兩人的屬於該校醫學院的聯合實驗室,他們的網頁也無法訪問。

李曉江說,三名在實驗室工作的中國研究生和五名博士後被告知在30天內須離開美國。

愛默蕾大學表示,在收到位於馬里蘭州的NIH的一封信後,該校進行了內部調查。聲明表示,NIH及其他獲聯邦補助的機構已表明對於外國勢力介入美國研究活動的顧慮。該校與全美其他大學一樣,與NIH密切合作關注這些疑慮並協助調查相關計畫。該校透過內部調查後,發現兩名接受NIH補助的研究人員並未完全披露其所接受中國研究機構及大學研究經費的來源及程度。愛默蕾大學並未點名兩人身分。

李曉江表示,這所位於亞特蘭大的大學解雇了他和他的妻子、實驗室共同負責人、神經學者李世華,「沒有任何通知或機會讓我們對未經證實的指控作出回應」。

他在一份聲明中表示:「我很震驚,愛默蕾大學竟以如此不尋常和唐突的方式,終止了一位終身教授的職位,並關閉了我們由許多畢業生和博士後組成的聯合實驗室,而沒有向我說明被解雇的具體原因。」

李曉江反駁愛默蕾大學對他和李世華的指控,稱他們在很多知名期刊上發表的論文,以及在網上發布的個人訊息,都披露了資助來源及與中國機構的關係。

「2012年起,我每年都會向愛默蕾大學披露我在中國的研究活動。」 李曉江說,「自2018年11月初以來,我在中國進行科研活動的調研期間,一直在提供愛默蕾大學要求我提供的文件」。

他還表示,沒有收到「愛默蕾大學寄給NIH的任何一份調查報告的副本,儘管我已向愛默蕾大學提出要求」。

愛默蕾大學發言人24日對「科學」說,除了上述聲明內容外,不會提供更多訊息。

●夫婦皆美國公民 研究杭廷頓舞蹈症

李曉江與李世華均為美國公民,在愛默蕾大學工作了23年。他們以利用小鼠和豬模型研究杭廷頓舞蹈症而聞名,曾參與利用CRISPR基因編輯技術來繁育豬隻及猴子,用以研究人類疾病。2018年3月,兩人也在「細胞」(Cell)期刊發表的,針對創造基因改造豬隻以用於研究杭廷頓舞蹈症(Huntington disease)的論文中列名為共同作者。

亞特蘭大憲法報(AJC)指出,此案是繼上月休士頓的安德森癌症研究中心(the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center)解雇三名中國資深研究員後的第二起類似案件。

NIH去年8月指出,美國政府對於國外勢力,尤其中國,利用政府資助的研究取得不公平的利益有嚴重疑慮。NIH說,至少有55個機構已正在調查相關案件。






5/25/2019

Li Xiao-Jiang (left) and Li Shihua (right).

 
COURTESY OF LI XIAO-JIANG

Terminated Emory researcher disputes university’s allegations about China ties


By Jon Cohen


A researcher terminated by Emory University for allegedly not disclosing funding and ties to institutions in China is forcefully disputing the charges. And neuroscientist Li Xiao-Jiang says the Atlanta-based university dismissed him and neuroscientist Li Shihua, his wife and lab co-leader, “simultaneously without any notice or opportunity for us to respond to unverified accusations.”

The two researchers, known for their studies of Huntington disease in mouse and pig models, both are U.S. citizens and have worked at Emory for 23 years. Li Xiao-Jiang says he was traveling in China on 16 May when both researchers were informed they had been terminated. The university has also closed their joint laboratory, which is part of the medical school, and their websites are no longer accessible. Four postdoctoral students working in the lab, who are Chinese nationals, have been told to leave the United States within 30 days, he told ScienceInsider today. None, he says, were given reasons for their terminations.

“I was shocked that Emory University would terminate a tenured professor in such an unusual and abrupt fashion and close our combined lab consisting of a number of graduates and postdoctoral trainees without giving me specific details for the reasons behind my termination,” he said in a statement.

Emory has said its action came after an internal investigation prompted by a letter from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland. For at least the past 8 months, NIH has been contacting U.S. universities with concerns about whether specific grantees have adhered to agency rules regarding the disclosure of foreign funding and affiliations. Earlier this year, NIH told Congress that it had identified at least 190 NIH grantees with potentially problematic foreign relationships, and that at least 55 institutions have begun investigations as a result of its inquiries.

Li Xiao-Jiang disputed Emory’s claim, made in a university statement yesterday, that the two researchers “had failed to fully disclose foreign sources of research funding and the extent of their work for research institutions and universities in China.” (Papers they have published in many high-profile journals, as well as biographical information posted online, have disclosed funding and affiliations with Chinese institutions.)

An Emory spokesperson told ScienceInsider today that it would not provide any more information other than what is in its statement.

“I have disclosed my Chin
ese research activity to Emory University each year since 2012,” Li Xiao-Jiang said. “I have provided documents requested by Emory University during the investigation of my research activity in China since early November 2018.” He also stated that he has not received “any copy of investigation that was sent to NIH by Emory, though I have requested Emory to give it to me.”

Li Xiao-Jiang declined to provide more specific information about the charges against him and his wife. But he said the termination came after Emory officials recently inspected material in his university email account. “I do not know what triggered Emory University’s examination of my emails in May 2019, which led to terminating my wife Dr. Shihua Li and me simultaneously without any notice or opportunity for us to respond to unverified accusations,” he stated. But he believes Emory’s action is related to “unverified information” in those emails, including unsigned or incomplete contracts, grant proposals, draft patents, and discussions about establishing biotechnology companies.

Li Xiao-Jiang said he is concerned about his lab workers, especially one who is pregnant and due to give birth in the next few weeks. He is also worried about the fate of his lab’s 500 cages of research mice, which include many unique models that his group created with NIH funding. The Lis currently have six NIH grants.

On 17 March, the Lis and seven other Emory faculty members of Chinese origin wrote a letter to Emory President Claire Sterk applauding “the courage and commitment” of the president of the University of California, Berkeley, and the provost of Stanford University for publicly reaffirming their support “for all faculty regardless of country of origin, and international collaborations despite the current polarized political climate.”

The researchers noted that “disturbing views and activities” at those schools “also exist on the Emory campus, which negatively derides Emory faculty members and international visitors, especially those of Chinese origin.” They asked Sterk to similarly support them. “[W]e feel that a statement is urgently needed to recognize the contributions of Emory’s diverse global community, and the enumerable benefit to science, research and education locally and globally.”

Sterk’s chief of staff, Daniel Gordon, replied 2 days later, saying that “a statement is already in the works,” which the university planned to issue “in the near future.” (No statement has yet been issued.) Gordon concluded: “Thank you for your thoughtful email, and for being such an important part of the Emory Family.”


Correction: This story initially reported that eight Chinese nationals in Li’s lab were asked to leave, but one of the fired has a green card and several others have not yet officially been terminated.






5/24/2019


The entrance to Emory University in Atlanta.

 
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Emory ousts two Chinese-American researchers after investigation into foreign ties


By David Malakoff



Emory University has ousted two veteran biomedical researchers and shuttered their laboratory after the National Institutes of Health (NIH) expressed concern about their foreign ties. The researchers “had failed to fully disclose foreign sources of research funding and the extent of their work for research institutions and universities in China,” the Atlanta-based university said in a statement first reported today by The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.

Emory has not identified the researchers, but according to a story posted on uschinapress.com (in Chinese), they are geneticists Li Xiao-Jiang and Li Shihua. The two researchers, who are married to each other, are Chinese-Americans who have both worked at Emory for more than 2 decades, according to biographical information posted online. They have been involved in efforts to use CRISPR gene editing to create engineered pigs and monkeys used to study human diseases. NIH Director Francis Collins highlighted their work in a June 2017 blog posting. In March 2018, the pair were co-authors of a paper in Cell that described the creation of a genetically modified pig that could be used to study Huntington disease and received press attention.

The move marks the second publicly known case in which an institution has moved to sever ties with NIH-funded researchers because of the funding agency’s concerns about undisclosed foreign sources of support for their work. Last month, Science and the Houston Chronicle revealed that the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, ousted three senior researchers after receiving letters from the Bethesda, Maryland-based NIH declaring that the scientists had committed potentially “serious” violations of agency rules involving confidentiality of peer review and the disclosure of foreign ties. Those researchers are among five MD Anderson scientists that NIH cited in its letters to the Texas cancer center.


Those letters are part of a sweeping NIH effort, launched in August 2018, to address growing U.S. government fears that foreign nations, particularly China, are taking unfair advantage of federally funded research. NIH has said at least 55 institutions have conducted investigations in response to its inquiries, which identify individuals with NIH funding.

The Emory statement said: “A letter that the NIH sent to many academic research universities” prompted it to begin “an internal investigation.” The institution shared the results of that investigation with NIH, it said, “and the faculty members are no longer employed at Emory.”

“It is important to note that Emory remains committed to the free exchange of ideas and research and to our vital collaborations with researchers from around the world,” the university said. “At the same time, Emory also takes very seriously its obligation to be a good steward of federal research dollars and to ensure compliance with all funding disclosure and other requirements.” An Emory spokesperson said today the university “is taking steps to ensure NIH research projects continue."

It is not clear when the two researchers left Emory or shut down their laboratory, which had sizeable funding from NIH. Emory web pages related to the two researchers are no longer accessible. A number of their papers note associations with or funding from Chinese institutions.

5/21/2019

又涉“千人计划”?著名华人生物学家实验室被关

【记者陈琳5月20日休斯敦报道】自上周末开始,有消息称埃默里大学(Emory University)华裔终身教授李晓江的实验室(Li Lab)突然被关闭,发消息的人称“所有人上交了卡,门禁、邮箱停止使用”。记者试图联系该校人力资源和李晓江所供职的医学院(School of Medicine),均未得到回复。目前,该校网页上有关李晓江的页面已经全部无法浏览。

著名华人生物学家李晓江 (中国科学院大学网站截图)

李晓江是著名华人生物学家,他的主要成就在于研究遗传性神经疾病的模式与机理。他于2015年制备出了世界首例帕金森病的转基因猴模型 ;2018年,他和中国科学院广州生物医药与健康研究院研究员赖良学合作,首次利用基因编辑技术和体细胞核移植技术,成功培育出世界首例亨廷顿舞蹈症基因敲入猪。这头猪能精准模拟出人类神经退行性疾病,为治疗亨廷顿舞蹈症、阿兹海默病等疾病打开了希望之门。国际顶级期刊《细胞》(Cell)刊发这项成果后,引起国内外广泛轰动。

根据中国科学院大学的官网介绍,李晓江本科毕业于江西医学院,分别在苏州医学院、美国俄勒冈州卫生科学大学和美国约翰霍普金斯大学取得了硕士、博士和从事博士后研究。此后,他先是在约翰霍普金斯大学担任助理教授,然后于1996年9月加入埃默里大学,从助教做到终身副教授,并于2005年1月成为该校终身教授至今。其间,2012年1月,李晓江被聘为中科院遗传发育所的研究员。




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李晓江与妻子李世华在埃默里大学网站上的信息均已无法打开 (埃默里大学官网截图)

用谷歌搜索“埃默里大学李晓江”,可以发现他在中科院的职务与中国“千人计划”有关。另有消息称,他已从中科院离职,前往暨南大学兼职。

李晓江的妻子李世华似乎也受了牵连。李世华与李晓江一样,供职于埃默里大学医学院,也是正教授,但学校网站上有关她的网页也已无法打开。

目前,尚不清楚此次关闭实验室的事件是否与美国国家卫生研究院(NIH)正在进行的清查有关。今年初,NIH向全美超过1万所大学和科研机构发信,并出具了一份人员名单,要求各院校对那些没有披露与外国政府进行合作等信息的人员进行自查。NIH院长柯林斯在今年4月初还表示,未来数周内就会有具体可见的行动。NIH称这一举动是为了防止外国政府不公平的利用NIH资助的研究。







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5/21/2019

美筑科技壁垒 中国工程师受限 多家半导体企业受影响


美中科技竞争白热化,华府除将中国电信大厂华为列入出口管制黑名单,核准美国半导体厂商延揽中国先进工程人才的速度也放慢。眼见科技壁垒成形,求才若渴的业界焦急且苦恼。

华尔街日报引述未具名业界人士说法报导,美国政府去年开始放慢核准速度,业者聘用中国员工或指派员工从事美国重要工程计画的能力受限,影响英特尔(Intel)、高通(Qualcomm)及格芯(Globalfoundries)等半导体厂商数以百计的职位。



    
   
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业界人士指出,华府此举影响遍及各产业,但半导体业特别头痛,因为美国本土高阶技术工程人才匮乏,业者目前在相关领域聘用的非美国公民中,绝大多数是中国籍人士。

依美国实行数十年的规定,企业指派中国、伊朗、俄罗斯等外籍员工从事敏感技术工作前,必须取得许可证,原因在于企业让这些外籍人士掌握最终可带回家乡的技能知识,美国商务部认定这类工作指派形同出口。

上述文件称作视同出口许可证(deemed-export license)。报导引述知情人士透露,过去美国政府核发这类许可证只需数周,如今等候时间常拖到6至8个月,导致业者眼睁睁看着属意的人才跑走。


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美国企业须取得视同出口许可证,才能让现有和即将聘用的外籍员工接触先进半导体、电信系统、加密与其他技术,审查程度视技术和可能被美国对手掌握的潜在风险而定。

曾在前总统欧巴马政府担任商务部工业与安全局(BIS)高层官员的律师沃尔夫(Kevin Wolf)表示,视同出口许可证核发速度改变,可能反映政治情势变化,但科技变迁也可能产生影响。如果涉及高度敏感技术的申请案增加,核准时间可能跟着拉长。


美国商务部资料显示,2013至2017年,中国籍人士占视同出口许可证核发数逾60%;2017年,第1和第3常见的视同出口申请类别都与芯片相关,第2常见的类别则涵盖电信技术。



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业界高层指出,白宫正积极保护美国技能知识,以防中国藉取得美国技术强化自身实力。过去几年,美国主管机关已挡下多宗涉及中国的科技并购案,遭怀疑有中资背景的博通(Broadcom)敌意并购高通失败,就是最受瞩目的案例之一。

与此同时,美中半年来进行贸易谈判,美方要求加强保护智慧财产权,获得半导体业界不少人呼应。如今谈判陷入僵局,美国调高对2000亿美元中国货品加征的关税税率,并将华为与数十家关系企业列入出口管制黑名单,使美国厂商更难与华为做生意。

高通等芯片厂商暂停向华为供货后,美国商务部昨天宣布将发放临时许可证,让华为部分供应商可在90天宽限期内免受出口管制限制。












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