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13.7% 美國移民人口比率 創百年新高 中印高學歷劇增




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9/14/2018

13.7% 美國移民人口比率 創百年新高 中印高學歷劇增

(World Journal) 編譯黃秀媛

最新人口普查數字顯示,外國出生的人口占美國人口比率創歷年新高。(TNS)
最新人口普查數字顯示,外國出生的人口占美國人口比率創歷年新高。(TNS)

聯邦人口普查局13日公布的資料顯示,在外國出生的美國居民去年達到4450萬人,比前年增加1.8%,在美國人口占有的比率更達到逾一個世紀以來的最高點,而且來自亞洲和擁有高等學歷的移民也愈來愈多。

紐約時報報導,過去有很多年墨西哥一直是美國新移民最大的來源國,可是2010年以來墨西哥移民大幅減少,而中國和印度的移民則劇增;這段期間亞洲移民增加了260萬人,比來自拉丁美洲的120萬人多出一倍以上。

去年到美國的新移民有6.4%來自中國,高於前年的6.2%;來自墨西哥的移民卻從26.5%減至25.3%。

儘管如此,拉美裔仍占美國的外國出生人口的50%,高於亞裔的31%。


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布魯金斯研究所的分析也顯示,近年來的新移民約有45%受過大學教育,而2000至2009年到美國的移民這種比率約為30%,推翻了新移民大多是來自拉丁美洲的低技能勞工的想法。

生在其他國家的居民,去年在美國人口占了13.7%,高於前年的13.5%,並創下該比率在1910年達到14.7%以來的最高水準。

人口普查局的年度「美國社區調查」(American Community Survey),統計所有出生在其他國家的人口,不分合法或非法,為估計移民人口提供最全盤資料;但是,專家認為非法移民人口可能受到低估,實際移民人數可能多出3%至5%。

美國人口面貌改變已成為政治爭議焦點。川普總統和許多共和黨人對移民激增感到不安,認為必須限制移民人數和型態。

川普政府有意限制合法移民,並加強逮捕和遣返非法移民;但是,移民政策研究所表示,合法移民尚未受到顯著限制,而去年外國出生人口增加,可能是美國就業市場強勁吸引更多人前來,留下的人也增加。



近年來移民增加最多的地區,包括一些原來移民人口最少的州,顯示移民正向美國各地擴散。

紐約和加州這兩個向來移民眾多的州,自2010年以來移民只增加不到6%,北達科他卻暴增87%,田納西和肯塔基增加20%,俄亥俄增加13%,南卡羅來納增加12%。

統計資料也顯示移民人口比率高的州出現一貫的政治型態;移民人口比率最高的15個州,除佛羅里達、德州和亞利桑納之外,2016 年大選都支持民主黨候選人喜萊莉‧柯林頓。

移民比率較低的州,有許多支持川普,這些州移民教育程度也通常高於本土出生的居民;例如在俄亥俄州,外國出生居民有43%受過大學教育,本土出生居民僅27%。當地外國出生人口有43%來自亞洲,只有20%來自拉丁美洲。





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FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 13, 2018

New American Community Survey Statistics for Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Available for States and Local Areas

SEPTEMBER 13, 2018
RELEASE NUMBER CB18-145

Statistics for More Than 40 Demographic and Economic Topics Provide Detailed Profiles of Communities Nationwide




SEPT. 13, 2018  The U.S. Census Bureau today released its most detailed look at America’s people, places and economy with new statistics on income, poverty, health insurance andmore than 40 other topics from the American Community Survey (ACS).

Many large metropolitan areas saw an increase in income and a decrease in poverty rates between 2016 and 2017. During that same period, the health insurance coverage rate was 91.4 percent for the civilian noninstitutionalized population living inside metropolitan areas and 90.3 percent for the population living outside metropolitan areas. Today’s release provides statistics for U.S. communities with populations of 65,000 or more.

“The American Community Survey provides a wide range of important statistics about all communities in the United States,” Census Bureau Social, Economic and Housing Statistics Division Chief David Waddington said. “It gives communities the current information they need to plan investments and services. Retailers, homebuilders, fire departments, and town and city planners are among the many private- and public-sector decision-makers who count on these annual statistics.”

Below are some of the local-level income, poverty and health insurance statistics from the ACS that complement the national-level statistics released on Wednesday, Sept. 12, 2018. These national-level statistics are from the Census Bureau’sCurrent Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is the leading source for national-level data on income, poverty and health insurance, while the ACS is the leading source for community and local-level data.

Income

  • Real median household income in the United States increased 2.6 percent between 2016 and 2017. The 2017 U.S. median household income was $60,336.
  • The 2017 median household income was the highest measured by the ACS since it was fully implemented in 2005.
  • Median household income was lower than the U.S. median in 29 states and higher in 18 states and the District of Columbia. Nebraska, Oregon and Wyoming had median incomes not statistically different from the U.S. median. Visit the news graphic to see where the rest of the states fall.
  • Median household income increased in 17 of the 25 most populous metropolitan areas between 2016 and 2017. None of these 25 metropolitan areas experienced a statistically significant decrease. Changes for eight of these 25 metropolitan areas were not statistically significant.

Income Inequality

  • Income inequality, as measured by the Gini index, was essentially unchanged from 2016 to 2017. The Gini index for the United States in the 2017 ACS (0.482) was not statistically different from the 2016 ACS estimate. The Gini index is a standard economic measure of income inequality. A score of 0.0 is perfect equality in income distribution. A score of 1.0 indicates total inequality where one household has all of the income.
  • Five states (California, Connecticut, Florida, Louisiana and New York), the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico had Gini indices higher than the United States. Ten were not statistically different from the U.S. Gini index; the remaining 35 were lower.
  • Most states experienced no statistical change in income inequality from 2016 to 2017. Income inequality increased in four states: Alaska, Delaware, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Income inequality decreased in two states: Alabama and California. 

Poverty

  • Between 2016 and 2017, poverty rates declined in 20 states and the District of Columbia. The poverty rate increased in two states: Delaware and West Virginia. Delaware saw its rate increase from 11.7 percent to 13.6 percent and the rate for West Virginia rose from 17.9 percent to 19.1 percent.
  • States with poverty rates of 18.0 percent or higher were Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico and West Virginia.
  • Thirteen states had poverty rates of 11.0 percent or lower. Visit the news graphic to see the 2017 poverty rates for all 50 states and the District of Columbia.
  • In 13 of the 25 most populous metropolitan areas, the poverty rate declined between 2016 and 2017. The poverty rate declined for the third consecutive year in eight of these 13 metropolitan areas.

Health Insurance

  • Between 2016 and 2017, the health insurance coverage rate decreased by 0.2 percentage points for the civilian noninstitutionalized population living inside metropolitan areas. There was no statistically significant change in the health insurance coverage rate for the population living outside metropolitan areas during this period.
  • In 2017, the Boston metropolitan area had the highest health insurance coverage rate (97.0 percent) among the 25 most populous metropolitan areas. The Houston metropolitan area had the lowest rate (81.8 percent). Visit the news graphic to see coverage rates for the 25 most populous metropolitan areas.
  • Between 2016 and 2017, the percentage of people covered by health insurance increased in four of the 25 most populous metropolitan areas. Increases in the rate of coverage ranged from 0.4 percentage points to 1.0 percentage points. In addition, six metro areas had decreases in the percentage of people covered by health insurance. Decreases in the rate of coverage ranged from 0.4 percentage points to 0.9 percentage points. The remaining 15 most populous metro areas showed no significant change.
  • Between 2013 and 2017, the Los Angeles, Miami and Riverside metropolitan areas experienced the largest increases in the rate of health insurance coverage among the 25 most populous metropolitan areas. Their rates of health insurance coverage increased by 9 percentage points or more. 
  • National and state-level health insurance data from the CPS and ACS were released earlier this week.
For more information on the topics included in the ACS, ranging from educational attainment to computer use to commuting, please visit census.gov. To access the full set of statistics released today, please visit American FactFinder.

Additional Topics and Findings Released Today From the ACS

New Data Dissemination Preview Platform

The Census Bureau is currently working to streamline online data dissemination to be more customer-driven and user-friendly by creating one centralized and standardized platform to underlie searches on census.gov. Beginning Sept. 13, some 2017 ACS statistics, including detailed tables, data profiles, subject tables and comparison profiles, will be available on the preview site at data.census.gov, in parallel with the data released on American FactFinder. We encourage you to take a look and provide your thoughts on our work in progress atcedsci.feedback@census.gov

New Data Visualization Tools

The Census Bureau’s ACS Digital Data Wheel allows users to explore and compare social, economic, housing, and demographic and economic characteristics from all states, U.S. congressional districts and metropolitan statistical areas.

The second visualization, “What can you learn from the American Community Survey?” answers commonly asked demographic and socio-economic questions using ACS data. Users can visually explore characteristics of states, U.S. congressional districts and metropolitan statistical areas with an interactive map.

Additional Annual Releases

In the upcoming months the Census Bureau will releaseadditional ACS data, including 2017 ACS supplemental tables and ACS five-year statistics (2013-2017).

These statistics would not be possible without the participation of the randomly selected households throughout the country that participated in the ACS.

###

Note: Statistics from sample surveys are subject to sampling and nonsampling error. All comparisons made in the reports have been tested and found to be statistically significant at the 90 percent confidence level, unless otherwise noted. Please consult the tables for specific margins of error. For more information, go to <https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/technical-documentation/code-lists.html>.

Changes in survey design from year-to-year can affect results. For more information on changes affecting the 2017 statistics, see <https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/news/data-releases/2017.html>.

For guidance on comparing 2017 American Community Survey statistics with previous years and the 2010 Census, see <https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/guidance/comparing-acs-data.html>.













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