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SEP 02, 1885: Whites massacre Chinese in Wyoming Territory

SEP02

Old West

1885

Whites massacre Chinese in Wyoming Territory

On this day in 1885, 150 white miners in Rock Springs, Wyoming, brutally attack their Chinese coworkers, killing 28, wounding 15 others, and driving several hundred more out of town.

The miners working in the Union Pacific coal mine had been struggling to unionize and strike for better working conditions for years. But at every juncture the powerful railroad company had bested them. Searching for a scapegoat, the angry miners blamed the Chinese. The Chinese coal miners were hard workers, but the Union Pacific had initially brought many of them to Rock Springs as strikebreakers, and they showed little interest in the miners’ union. Outraged by a company decision to allow Chinese miners to work the richest coal seams, a mob of white miners impulsively decided to strike back by attacking Rock Spring’s small Chinatown. When they saw the armed mob approaching, most of the Chinese abandoned their homes and businesses and fled for the hills. But those who failed to escape in time were brutally beaten and murdered. A week later, on September 9, U.S. troops escorted the surviving Chinese back into the town where many of them returned to work. Eventually the Union Pacific fired 45 of the white miners for their roles in the massacre, but no effective legal action was ever taken against any of the participants.

The Rock Springs massacre was symptomatic of the anti-Chinese feelings shared by many Americans at that time. The Chinese had been victims of prejudice and violence ever since they first began to come to the West in the mid-nineteenth century, fleeing famine and political upheaval. Widely blamed for all sorts of social ills, the Chinese were also singled-out for attack by some national politicians who popularized strident slogans like “The Chinese Must Go” and helped pass an 1882 law that closed the U.S. to any further Chinese immigration. In this climate of racial hatred, violent attacks against the Chinese in the West became all too common, though the Rock Springs massacre was notable both for its size and savage brutality.



(5/29/2018, 星期二晚8-10点, US EDT) 纪录片“排华法案”由PBS播放
The Chinese Exclusion Act poster image
纪录片“排华法案”,将会在今天星期二晚,由PBS播放。
该纪录片由著名制作人Ric Burns制作,回顾了华人移民在美国的历史,值得每一个在美国生活的华人去观看。

东部时间:星期二晚8-10点;
中部时间:星期二晚7-9点;
西部时间:星期二晚8-10点;
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/chinese-exclusion-act/


PREMIERES MAY 29, 2018
The Chinese Exclusion Act
A SPECIAL PRESENTATION OF AMERICAN EXPERIENCE
Film Description
Examine the origin, history and impact of the 1882 law that made it illegal for Chinese workers to come to America and for Chinese nationals already here ever to become U.S. citizens. The first in a long line of acts targeting the Chinese for exclusion, it remained in force for more than 60 years.





Last update: 5/29/2018




The Chinese Exclusion Act Behind the scenes interview with Ric Burns and Li-Shin Yu

Published on Sep 1, 2016

In this exclusive behind the scenes interview, THE CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT directors Ric Burns and Li-Shin Yu share what inspired them to tell the story of The Chinese Exclusion Act and how knowing this history can help all Americans better understand the American Experience.



The Chinese Exclusion Act - NHD 2017 Documentary

Published on Jan 16, 2017

Documentary created by:
Mark Fazzolari
Joshua Po
Mark Rettinger &
Luis Garbanzos



The Chinese Exclusion Act


Published on Feb 4, 2014

A NHD documentary on the Chinese Exclusion Act.





5/25/2018

PBS to Debut Documentary Film THE CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT This May 29


By TV News Desk


PBS will broadcast documentary film THE CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT on Tuesday, May 29th at 8:00 p.m. ET. This deeply American story - about immigration and national identity, civil rights and human justice; about how we define who can be an American, and what being an American means, is directed by Emmy-winning Directors Ric Burns and Li-Shin Yu.

Synopsis: On May 6th, 1882 - on the eve of the greatest wave of immigration in American history - President Chester A. Arthur signed into law a unique piece of federal legislation. Called the Chinese Exclusion Act, it singled out by name and race a single nationality for special treatment: making it illegal for Chinese laborers to enter America on pain of imprisonment and for Chinese nationals ever to become citizens of the United States.

The Chinese Exclusion Act, a two-hour film for national broadcast on PBS during the 2018 season, will explore in riveting detail this little known, yet deeply resonant and revealing episode in American history - one that sheds enormous light on key aspects of the history of American civil liberties, immigration, and culture - during one of the most formative periods of U.S. history.

A deeply American story - about immigration and national identity, civil rights and human justice; about how we define who can be an American, and what being an American means - the film examines the economic, cultural, social, legal, racial and political dimensions of the law; the forces and events that gave rise to it; and the effect it has had, and continues to have, on American culture and identity.

Directed by Ric Burns and Li-Shin Yu. Narrated by Hoon Lee and featuring the voices of Russell Wong, Fenton Lee, Yuet-Fung Ho and Josh Hamilton. Produced by Steeplechase Films and the Center for Asian American Media (CAAM). Premieres Tuesday, May 29, 2018 from 8:00-10:00 PM ET on PBS.


The Certificate of Residence, a legal form of documentation that was added as a provision of the 1882 Exclusion Act when it was extended under the Geary Act in 1892. Every Chinese immigrant was required to carry a Certificate, or face threat of deportation. Over 100,000 Chinese residents refused to register for documentation under the Act- a massive act civil disobedience.

Saum Song Bo, a Chinese law student in America, wrote a formal response in The New York Sun after receiving a solicitation for funds towards the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. He points out the irony of soliciting funds for such an endeavor from a population deprived of basic American rights, "Whether this statute against the Chinese - or the Statue of Liberty - will be the more lasting monument to tell future ages of the liberty and greatness of this country, will be known only to future generations."

Wong Kim Ark's 1898 landmark Supreme Court case citing the 14th Amendment established birthright citizenship, securing citizenship for all children born in the United States.

Women detainees at Angel Island. Unlike Ellis Island, where 98 percent of incoming immigrants made their way through, eighteen percent of the applicants at Angel Island were initially rejected - and five percent deported outright - after grueling interrogations, and harrowing detentions.

Ric Burns has been producing, directing and writing historical documentaries for public television since collaborating on The Civil War (1990), which he produced with his brother Ken and co-wrote with Geoffrey C. Ward. In 1989, Burns founded Steeplechase Films and since that time he has produced many award winning films including: Coney Island (1991); The Donner Party (1992); New York: A Documentary Film (1999, 2001, 2003); Eugene O'Neill (2006); Death & the Civil War (2011); American Ballet Theatre (2015); and The Pilgrims (2015). His films have received seven Emmy Awards, three Columbia DuPont Awards, and two Peabody Awards. Burns was educated at Columbia University and Cambridge University. He is currently at work on a film about the life and work of Dr. Oliver Sacks.

Li-Shin Yu, a New York-based film editor, has collaborated with Director Ric Burns for the past twenty-three years. Yu and Burns are best known for their epic series New York: A Documentary Film, an eight-part production chronicling the city's rise from a remote Dutch outpost to the cultural and economic center of the world, for which Yu received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Achievement in Editing. Yu began her career collaborating with other New York independent filmmakers including Jim Jarmusch, Spike Lee, Sara Driver and Peter Wang and more recently with documentarians Christine Choy, Bill Moyers, Thomas Lennon and Stanley Nelson amongst others.






紀錄片: The Chinese Exclusion Act | 扫地僧: 排华法案的背景


On May 6th, 1882 – on the eve of the greatest wave of immigration in American history – President Chester A. Arthur signed into law a unique piece of federal legislation. Called the Chinese Exclusion Act, it singled out by name and race a single nationality for special treatment: making it illegal for Chinese laborers to enter America on pain of imprisonment; for Chinese nationals ever to become citizens of the United States; and for Chinese immigrants already here to leave the country and re-enter it.

The Chinese Exclusion Act, a two-hour film for national broadcast on PBS in May of 2017, will explore in riveting detail this little known, yet deeply resonant and revealing episode in American history – one that sheds enormous light on key aspects of the history of American civil liberties, immigration, and culture – during one of the most formative periods of U.S. history.

Repealed after 61 years in 1943, but still de facto in effect as late as 1965, this landmark piece of legislation – and the dramatic social, political and economic circumstances behind its origin, implementation and eventual repeal – forms a remarkable lens through which to explore key aspects of American culture, society and evolving national identity – at a critical phase in U.S. history, as America grew from a fledgling republic to a global superpower. 

A deeply American story – about immigration and national identity, civil rights and human justice; about how we define who can be an American, and what being an American means – the film will examine the economic, cultural, social, legal, racial and political dimensions of the law; the forces and events that gave rise to it; and the effect it has had, and continues to have, on American culture and identity.



Comments:

(@扫地僧)

发表言论之前,要仔细分析一下排华法案的背景,这样才能叫醒我们的同胞。

最初的排华行动源自加利福尼亚的金矿区,白人淘金者因经济利益和种族歧视,针对华人矿工实施的暴力事件便偶有发生。19世纪50年代末,黄金产量不断下降,一些华人离开矿区迁入城市并进入各行业,排华情绪也随之扩展到城市。

受民间排华情绪影响,美国西部一些州政府和地方当局陆续制定了一些歧视华人的法律和规定,对华人的生活、工作及教育加以种种限制。不过,此时的排华主要还处在局部地区的零散阶段。联邦政府考虑到廉价劳动力对西部开发,特别是修筑横贯大陆铁路的重要性,对华人移美依然采取鼓励的态度,1868年主动与清政府签订了《蒲安臣条约》。该条约明确规定两国政府各自允许本国人“自由”移居对方国家,两国政府各以“最惠国待遇”对待对方之侨民。条约签订后,华人抵美人数激增。进入19世纪70年代,美国国内环境发生重大变化,经济危机与自然灾害的发生,导致国内经济严重衰退,各种社会矛盾迅速激化。日益增多的华人移民,在种族主义分子和别有用心政客的恶毒宣传下,沦为经济萧条和社会矛盾的替罪羊,成了暴徒主要的攻击目标。原先局限于西部地区的排华事件开始愈演愈烈,并最终演变成为大规模的、有组织的、全国性的排华浪潮。

排华法案的形成究其背后的深层原因主要有以下三点:

(一)严重的种族主义和文化冲突。

加州曾是美国排华最激烈的地区,当地早期的移民主要来自美国的东部和东南部,绝大部分是种族主义者,他们不能容忍所有的印第安人和一切外国血统的人。其中,美国土著受害最深,而华人、墨西哥人和西班牙裔美国人的命运也好不了多少。一些种族主义色彩严重的报刊,为煽动排华情绪,或刊登漫画,或连载文章,极尽丑化华人之能事。这些谎谬的宣传无非是要提醒人们,如果不禁止华人,白人的前途和命运将面临严重威胁。不言而喻,严重的种族主义对排华立法起到推波助澜的作用。

另一方面,华人移民大多来自中国的农村,长期生活在家族、地区、方言群、行会、会馆等社会关系中,固守着自己的文化风俗与生活习惯,易与美国社会脱节。他们集体居住、集体劳动,习惯于中国封建思想中的“三纲五常”等诸种陈规,也与美国白人崇尚个体自由与独立的意识格格不入。因此,在当时的一些美国人看来,华人守旧,不关心美国社会,拒绝美国的宗教和民主思想及生活方式,不能同化于美国社会,永远是个外族。由此,双方文化的差异,加深了彼此的误解,加剧了白人对华人的排斥。

(二)经济因素与劳工组织的推动。

19世纪后半叶,美国经历了第二次工业革命,机器大生产的扩大降低了工厂对劳动力的需求,工人失业问题日益突显。1873年国内爆发严重的经济危机,经济萧条持续五年之久,而就在19世纪70年代经济危机的严重关头,华人赴美达到高潮。1870-1880年间,入境美国的华人达13.4万人,其中1876年是最高峰,达22943人。大批华工的到来,加之他们不计工种,能忍受延长工时、降低工资的待遇,在劳动力市场对美国本土劳工构成了严重的威胁。本土劳工由于觉悟和认识所限,逐渐把自己的苦难归咎于外来华工的竞争,将排华作为发泄不满情绪的手段。

1877年旧金山市经济陷入困境,失业和申请救济的人数急剧增加,民众不满情绪高涨。7月23日发生在该市的一场工人集会,在反华分子的煽动下,演变成一场大规模的排华暴乱,华人不幸沦为经济和社会矛盾激化的牺牲品。美国政府动用陆军、海军以及5000名公民治安维持会成员,才将暴乱镇压下去。地方性和全国性的劳工组织,如加利福尼亚工人党、全国劳工联盟等,为获得工人的支持,积极制造排华舆论,游说国会,成为诸多排华法案得以通过的主要推动力量。

(三)美国国内的政治操弄。

排华浪潮由一种社会现象演化为政治议题与同期国内政治的发展变化有着密切的关系。1850-60年代,劳工阶层在加州政治中的作用日显重要,候选人为争取劳工选票,常常操弄排华议题,当选地方行政首长之后,又不断出台排华政策。这些都直接助长了排外主义者的嚣张气焰,使当地的排华浪潮不断升温。进入19世纪70年代,在内战中因拥护奴隶制而元气大伤的民主党,逐渐恢复了力量。1876年大选,共和、民主两党处于势均力敌的状态,如何获取西部各州的支持显得尤为重要。

为了迎合西部选民的排华心理,两党竞相把排华问题纳入竞选纲领,排华问题随之扩展成为全国性的政治议题。民主党人表示,“需立法进一步禁止蒙古人种的入境或移民”。而共和党则认为,“国会最紧迫的任务是应该全面调查蒙古人移民和入境对国家道德利益和物质利益的影响”。当共和党人拉瑟福德•海斯以微弱优势当选之后表示:“愿意考虑任何旨在禁止华人入境的适当措施”,排华法案的出台事实上已经不可避免了。


(@孤山居士)

看了你发的作者评价,其实当年移民美国最多的是德国人,人数大大超过华人,为何没有针对日耳曼族裔的法案?可见华人来美创业之艰辛。


(@S.B. Woo)

Thank you.  It is a good document, giving a wide range of the views regarding the act.  It stirs deep thoughts.

SB


(@Marga)

Thank you for sharing! Yes I AM very aware of these tragedies along with the opium dens in San Francisco after the big earth quake in the early 1900's thankfully we are past some of these dark times but still more work to be done! Now we are debt slaves these days with the interest rates from the crash in 08.










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